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3-DAY REFRESH: GET YOUR BODY BACK ON THE FAST TRACK TO WEIGHT LOSS AND HEALTHY EATING HABITS

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What's the deal with Recovery Formula?
P90X Results and Recovery Formula is a four-parts-carbohydrates-to-one-part-protein powder that speeds muscle recovery.

When you exercise anaerobically (weight training, the high end of intervals, etc.), you burn blood sugar and glycogen. If you give it your all for about an hour, you'll probably deplete both of those resources. The carbs in Recovery Formula rush in to replenish that blood sugar and glycogen. Meanwhile, the protein piggybacks in, getting to muscles for a head start on resynthesis.

This 4:1 recovery drink model was conceived by John Ivy and Robert Portman in a landmark study you can read in the book Nutrient Timing: The Future of Sports Nutrition.

That's my main answer to this query, but there are sometimes subtle variations on the question. Let's address a few of those here.

First off, the carb–protein balance should be between 3:1 and 5:1 to work optimally. If you take in more protein than that or you add fat or fiber, it slows the absorption of the carbohydrates and you miss the post-workout window of about 1 hour during which nutrients are absorbed readily.

Secondly, while Recovery Formula primarily works for strength workouts, there's an anaerobic component to most of our "aerobic," or cardio, workouts, which you know if you've done P90X's "Plyometrics" workout.

Because not every workout is going to hammer you, you should decide how much Recovery Formula you need on a sliding scale. If you're so wasted that you're having difficulty moving the muscle groups you just worked, then a full serving of Recovery Formula is called for. If you feel a little shaky but not trashed, you probably have a little glycogen left over, so drink half a serving.

Another factor in deciding how you use Recovery Formula is how much blood sugar you began your workout with. If your diet is very lean, you may be tapped to begin with, so sipping a little during your workout would be hugely beneficial. There's no hard and fast rule. If you feel perfectly good post-workout, you likely didn't train hard enough for Recovery Formula. It's really up to you to gauge how you feel, and use some common sense.

Finally, Recovery Formula is specially designed for maximum absorption, and it has a lot of extra goodies in it. But if you're getting fit on the cheap, you can make your own recovery drink with apples or grape juice (the acids in orange juice mess with the absorption process, so don't use that) and a couple tablespoons of vanilla protein powder.

And no, it doesn't taste weird. It tastes like a fruit juice float.

Oh, and Beachbody's Meal Replacement Shake is also a decent replacement.
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RE: What's the deal with Recovery Formula?
9/2/10 8:38 AM as a reply to AdStaffSteph.
And if you really want to get fancy with the science, here's Steve Edwards throwing down:

We've written a lot of articles on the relationship between carbs and protein, post exercise, if you'd like to search the newsletter archives. Essentially, after any workout hard enough to diminish blood glycogen levels (most BB workouts done at full throttle since a full storage of glycogen can only last plus or minus one hour of hard output) CHO replenishment is vital because muscle breakdown is accelerated until blood gycogen is replenished. Many studies beginning in the mid 90s showed that some amount of protein in addition to carbohydrate improves recovery over CHO alone. The exact ratio is debated. We use 4:1 (consistent with Burke's research) but ratios from 1:1 to 7:1 have all showed improvement over CHO alone.

Ivy et al, (1) examined the effect of a carbohydrate-protein supplement on endurance performance during exercise of varying intensity. Increasing the plasma glucose and insulin concentrations during prolonged variable intensity exercise by supplementing with carbohydrate has been found to spare muscle glycogen and increase aerobic endurance. Furthermore, the addition of protein to a carbohydrate supplement will enhance the insulin response of a carbohydrate supplement. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of a carbohydrate and a carbohydrate-protein supplement on aerobic endurance performance.

Nine trained cyclists exercised on 3 separate occasions at intensities that varied between 45% and 75% VO2max for 3 h and then at 85% VO2max until fatigued. Supplements (200 ml) were provided every 20 min and consisted of placebo, a 7.75% carbohydrate solution, and a 7.75% carbohydrate/1.94% protein solution. Treatments were administered using a double-blind randomized design. Carbohydrate supplementation significantly increased time to exhaustion (carbohydrate 19.7 +/- 4.6 min vs. placebo 12.7 +/- 3.1 min), while the addition of protein enhanced the effect of the carbohydrate supplement (carbohydrate-protein 26.9 +/- 4.5 min, p < .05). Blood glucose and plasma insulin levels were elevated above placebo during carbohydrate and carbohydrate-protein supplementation, but no differences were found between the carbohydrate and carbohydrate-protein treatments. In summary, we found that the addition of protein to a carbohydrate supplement enhanced aerobic endurance performance above that which occurred with carbohydrate alone, but the reason for this improvement in performance was not evident.

Miller et al., (2) likewise examined the metabolic response to a provision of mixed protein-carbohydrate supplementation during endurance exercise.

The interaction of substrates and hormones in response to ingestion of intact proteins during endurance exercise is unknown. This study characterized substrate and hormone responses to supplementation during endurance exercise. Nine male runners participated in 3 trials in which a non-fat (MILK), carbohydrate (CHO), or placebo (PLA) drink was consumed during a 2-hour treadmill run at 65% VO2max. Circulating levels of insulin, glucagon, epinephrine, norepinephrine, growth hormone, testosterone, and cortisol were measured. Plasma substrates included glucose, lactate, free fatty acids, and select amino acids. Except for insulin and cortisol, hormones increased with exercise. While post-exercise insulin concentrations declined similarly in all 3 trials, the glucagon increase was greatest following MILK consumption. CHO blunted the post-exercise increase in growth hormone compared to levels in MILK.

Free fatty acids and plasma amino acids also were responsive to nutritional supplementation with both CHO and MILK attenuating the rise in free fatty acids compared to the increase observed in PLA. Correspondingly, respiratory exchange ratio increased during CHO. Essential amino acids increased significantly only after MILK and were either unchanged or decreased in CHO. PLA was characterized by a decrease in branched-chain amino acid concentrations. Modest nutritional supplementation in this study altered the endocrine response as well as substrate availability and utilization following and during an endurance run, respectively.

(3) reported post exercise protein-carbohydrate and carbohydrate supplements increase muscle glycogen in men and women. They previously demonstrated that women did not increase intramuscular glycogen in response to an increased percent of dietary carbohydrate (CHO) (from 60 to 75% of energy intake).

CHO and CHO-protein (Pro) supplementation post exercise can potentiate glycogen resynthesis compared with placebo . We studied the effect of isoenergetic CHO and CHO-Pro-Fat supplements on muscle glycogen resynthesis in the first 4 hours after endurance exercise (90 min at 65% peak O2 consumption) in trained endurance athletes (men, n = 8; women, tested in midfollicular phase, n = 8). Each subject completed three sequential trials separated by 3 wk; a supplement was provided immediately and 1-h postexercise: 1) CHO (0.75 g/kg) + Pro (0.1 g/kg) + Fat (0.02 g/kg), 2) CHO (1 g/kg), and 3) placebo (Pl; artificial sweetener). Subjects were given prepackaged, isoenergetic, isonitrogenous diets, individualized to their habitual diet, for the day before and during the exercise trial. During exercise, women oxidized more lipid than did men (P < 0.05). Both of the supplement trials resulted in greater post exercise glucose and insulin compared with Pl (P < 0.01), with no gender differences. Similarly, both of these trials resulted in increased glycogen resynthesis (37.2 vs. 24. 6 mmol . kg dry muscle-1 . h-1, CHO vs. CHO-Pro-Fat, respectively) compared with Pl (7.5 mmol . kg dry muscle-1 . h-1; P < 0.001) with no gender differences. They concluded that post exercise CHO and CHO-Pro-Fat nutritional supplements can increase glycogen resynthesis to a greater extent than Pl for both men and women.

(4) compared carbohydrate, protein, and carbohydrate-protein supplementsto determine their effects on muscle glycogen storage during recovery from prolonged exhaustive exercise. Nine male subjects cycled for 2 h on three separate occasions to deplete their muscle glycogen stores. Immediately and 2 h after each exercise bout, they ingested 112.0 g carbohydrate (CHO), 40.7 g protein (PRO), or 112.0 g carbohydrate and 40.7 g protein (CHO-PRO). Blood samples were drawn before exercise, immediately after exercise, and throughout recovery. Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis immediately and 4 h after exercise. During recovery the plasma glucose response of the CHO treatment was significantly greater than that of the CHO-PRO treatment, but the plasma insulin response of the CHO-PRO treatment was significantly greater than that of the CHO treatment. Both the CHO and CHO-PRO treatments produced plasma glucose and insulin responses that were greater than those produced by the PRO treatment (P less than 0.05). The rate of muscle glycogen storage during the CHO-PRO treatment [35.5 +/- 3.3 (SE) mumol.g protein-1.h-1] was significantly faster than during the CHO treatment (25.6 +/- 2.3 mumol.g protein-1.h-1), which was significantly faster than during the PRO treatment (7.6 +/- 1.4 mumol.g protein-1.h-1). The results suggest that post exercise muscle glycogen storage can be enhanced with a carbohydrate-protein supplement as a result of the interaction of carbohydrate and protein on insulin secretion.

(5) concluded that early postexercise muscle glycogen recovery is enhanced with a carbohydrate-protein supplement. They tested the hypothesis that a carbohydrate-protein (CHO-Pro) supplement would be more effective in the replenishment of muscle glycogen after exercise compared with a carbohydrate supplement of equal carbohydrate content (LCHO) or caloric equivalency (HCHO). After 2.5 +/- 0.1 h of intense cycling to deplete the muscle glycogen stores, subjects (n = 7) received, using a rank-ordered design, a CHO-Pro (80 g CHO, 28 g Pro, 6 g fat), LCHO (80 g CHO, 6 g fat), or HCHO (108 g CHO, 6 g fat) supplement immediately after exercise (10 min) and 2 h post exercise. Before exercise and during 4 h of recovery, muscle glycogen of the vastus lateralis was determined periodically by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Exercise significantly reduced the muscle glycogen stores (final concentrations: 40.9 +/- 5.9 mmol/l CHO-Pro, 41.9 +/- 5.7 mmol/l HCHO, 40.7 +/- 5.0 mmol/l LCHO). After 240 min of recovery, muscle glycogen was significantly greater for the CHO-Pro treatment (88.8 +/- 4.4 mmol/l) when compared with the LCHO (70.0 +/- 4.0 mmol/l; P = 0.004) and HCHO (75.5 +/- 2.8 mmol/l; P = 0.013) treatments. Glycogen storage did not differ significantly between the LCHO and HCHO treatments. There were no significant differences in the plasma insulin responses among treatments, although plasma glucose was significantly lower during the CHO-Pro treatment. These results suggest that a CHO-Pro supplement is more effective for the rapid replenishment of muscle glycogen after exercise than a CHO supplement of equal CHO or caloric content.

SUMMARY: Endurance athletes should experiment with a meal recovery protocol that contains carbohydrate and protein, not simply carbohydrate alone. The best time to consume this meal is the first 30 minutes after exercise to take advantage of the limited post-exercise enzymes & hormonal carrier availability.
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RE: What's the deal with Recovery Formula?
4/25/11 10:23 AM as a reply to AdStaffSteph.
Yet more studies backing up Recovery Formula:

Studies:
1 D.L. Fogt, J.L. Ivy. Effects 0f Post Exercise Carbohydrate-Protein Supplement On Skeletal Muscle Glycogen Storage. Medicine & Science in Sports and Exercise. 32(5)S60, 2000.

This study showed that "The greater rate of recovery following glycogen-depleting exercise during the carb-protein treatment shown (in previous studies) was likely due to a greater glycogen restoration." Eight endurance-trained cyclists performed two trials consisting of a 2-hour glycogen depletion ride followed by ingestion of 12 oz of a carb-protein supplement (4:1 ratio) or a carbohydrate supplement immediately and 2 hours post-exercise. Trials were randomized and separated by 7 days. Blood samples were collected prior to exercise and throughout the 4-hour post-exercise recovery period. Muscle biopsies were taken immediately after and 4 hours post exercise for determination of muscle glycogen content. Ingestion of the carb-protein supplement resulted in a 17% greater plasma glucose response, a 92% greater insulin response, and a 128% greater storage of muscle glycogen compared to the carb-only supplement.

2 Ivy JL, Goforth HW Jr, Damon BM, McCauley TR, Parsons EC, Price TB. Early post-exercise muscle glycogen recovery is enhanced with a carbohydrate-protein supplement. Journal of Applied Physiology. 93: 1337-1344, 2002.
This study showed that "a carb-protein supplement is more effective for the rapid replenishment of muscle glycogen after exercise than a carb-only supplement of equal carbohydrate or caloric content." Subjects completed a very long workout on stationary bikes and then drank either a carb-protein sports drink (4:1 ratio) or a carb-only sports drink of equal calories. Four hours later, muscle glycogen was significantly greater in those given the carb-protein sports drink.

3 Levenhagen, DK, Carr C, Carlson MG. Postexercise protein intake enhances whole-body and leg protein accretion in humans. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 34: 828-837, 2002.
This study found that post-exercise consumption of a carbohydrate-protein supplement increased protein synthesis in exercised muscles and throughout the body compared to a carb-only supplement and placebo. Five men and five women completed a one-hour stationary bicycle ride. Upon completion of the workout, subjects were randomly given either the placebo, the carb-only supplement, or the carb-protein supplement. The test was repeated until all subjects had received all three treatments. The carb-protein supplement increased plasma essential amino acids 33%, leg uptake of glucose 3.5-fold, and leg and whole-body protein synthesis 6-fold and 15%, respectively. Whereas post-exercise intake of either placebo or the carb-only supplement resulted in a net leg release of essential amino acids and net loss of whole-body and leg protein, the carb-protein supplement resulted in a net leg uptake of essential amino acids and net whole-body and leg protein gain.
4 Niles ES, Lachowetz T, Garfi J, Sullivan W, Smith JC, Leyh BP, Headley SA. Carbohydrate-protein drink improves time to exhaustion after recovery from endurance exercise. Journal of Exercise Physiology Online. 4:45-52, 2001.

This study demonstrated that "a carb-protein drink following glycogen depleting exercise may facilitate a greater rate of muscle glycogen resynthesis than a carbohydrate only beverage, hasten the recovery process, and improve exercise endurance during a second bout of exercise performed on the same day." Ten male athletes completed a long workout on stationary bikes, then drank either a carb-protein sports drink (4:1 ratio) or a carb-only sports drink. After a two-hour rest the subjects completed an endurance bout to exhaustion. The athletes went 20% longer with the carb-protein sports drink than with the carb-only sports drink.

5 S.L. Ready, J.G. Seifert. & E. Burke. The Effect of Two Sports Drink Formulations on Muscle Stress and Performance. Medicine & Science in Sports and Exercise. 31(5)S119, 1999.
This study demonstrated that "A carb-protein supplement, by providing additional carbohydrate and amino acids, may reduce post exercise muscle stress, as evidenced by a 36% decrease in 24-hour creatine kinase levels. Ten college-age males and females completed a 45-minute run, rested in a 10-minute transition, cycled for 90 minutes, and then performed a time trial. During the transition and 30 minutes into the bike segment, subjects ingested either a 15% carb-protein beverage (4:1 ratio) or a carb-only beverage. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for creatine kinase (a biomarker of muscle damage), lactic acid and glucose. There was a 36% reduction for the 24-hour post-exercise creatine kinase level in the carb-protein treatment.

6 Williams, Michael B., Raven, Peter B., Fogt, Donovan L., and Ivy, John L. Effects of recovery beverages on glycogen restoration and endurance exercise performance.
J Strength Cond Res, 2003 Feb;17(1):12-19
This study determined that "The rate of post-exercise recovery is coupled with the rate of muscle glycogen replenishment," and that "recovery supplements should be consumed to optimize muscle glycogen synthesis as well as fluid replacement." Eight endurance trained cyclists performed two trials consisting of a 2-hour glycogen depletion ride followed by an exhaustive ride at high intensity. Subjects received either a carb-protein beverage (4:1 ratio) or a carb-only sports drink immediately and 2 hours post-exercise. Post-exercise ingestion of carb-protein beverage (4:1 ratio), in comparison to the carb-only beverage, resulted in a 55% greater time to exhaustion during a subsequent exercise bout at 85% VO2max. Ingestion of the carb-protein beverage resulted in a 17% greater plasma glucose response, a 92% greater insulin response and a 128% greater storage of muscle glycogen compared to the carb-only beverage.

7 Williams, M., J. Ivy, And P. Raven. Effects Of Recovery Drinks After Prolonged Glycogen-Depletion Exercise. Medicine & Science in Sports and Exercise. 31(5)S124, 1999.
This study found that recovery from glycogen-depleting exercise was significantly enhanced by 4:1 carb:protein ratio recovery drink (RD) when compared to a carb-only sports drink (SD). In addition, the RD decreased the formation of final oxidation products, when compared to the SD. Eight male cyclists performed a two-hour cycling exercise bout followed by one to three 5-minute sprints. A four-hour recovery period ensued in which the subjects were given 24 ounces of either a RD or a SD. A performance test to exhaustion was then conducted. The recovery phase showed significant increases in both plasma glucose and insulin following RD ingestion as compared to SD. There was an average 66% increase in time to exhaustion during the performance ride following RD ingestion compared to SD. Final oxidation products following RD ingestion were significantly decreased as compared to SD ingestion.

8 Zawadzki KM , Yaspelkis BB,Ivy JL. Carbohydrate protein complex increases the rate of muscle glycogen storage after exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology. 72:1854-1859, 1992.
This study found that "post-exercise muscle glycogen storage can be enhanced with a carbohydrate-protein supplement as a result of the interaction of carbohydrate and protein on insulin secretion." Nine men cycled for two hours on three occasions to deplete their muscle glycogen. After each workout they drank a carbohydrate, protein, or carb-protein supplement. The rate of muscle glycogen replenishment in the carbohydrate-protein treatment was 38% greater than in the carbohydrate treatment and more than three times greater than in the protein treatment.
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